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the direction in which the fibres run in wood Wood engravings are cut across the grain.

the size of dots which form a photograph

a spotted effect on fast photographic films due to the size of the light-sensitive silver halide crystals

â–  verb to texture the surface of a lithographic plate to allow it to hold the ink

COMMENT: The grain on machine-made paper is formed as the wire mesh holding the pulp is shaken from side to side. The fibres in the pulp fall into line lengthwise with the web. In the case of handmade paper, the wire is also shaken, but in several directions, with the result that the fibres do not lie in one direction and the paper has no definite grain. In a reel of paper, the grain always runs in the direction of the web. Sheets can have the grain either along or across the sheet, depending on how the sheet is cut from the web. Books are normally printed with the grain (i. e. the grain runs down the page from top to bottom). Printing on paper against the grain (i. e. with the grain of the paper running from the foredge to the gutter) may avoid wrinkling of the pages in damp conditions, but it has other considerable disadvantages as it makes the book more difficult to keep flat when open and makes the pages curve. If paper is folded against the grain it will not lie flat. When printing in full colour it is desirable to print with the grain to avoid problems of register.



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